Title: Study of the effect of sources and different application rates of manures on agronomic traits, yield, yield components, and grain quality of Hashemi and Gilaneh rice varieties
Author: Abbas Shahdi Kumleh
Abstract: In addition to maintaining and improving the physical and chemical properties of paddy soil, organic fertilizers have an important role in improving the quantity and quality. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research site of the Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht during two farming years 2018 and 2019 with the aim of reducing problems caused by chemical fertilizers and maintaining and improving soil fertility through organic fertilizers. Experimental factors included poultry manure (2.5, 5, and 10 t/ha), cow manure (5, 10, and 20 t/ha), and sheep manure (10, 20, and 40 t/ha) were considered. The results showed that the effect of applying organic fertilizers on morphological traits and yield components of rice varieties was significant at the level of one percent probability. So that consumption of 20 tons per hectare of cow manure increased plant height by 40.1 percent, fertile tillers by 45.8 percent in, number of spikes by 67.7 percent and paddy yield by 60.5 percent in Hashemi variety and in Gilaneh variety increased traits were 38.1% of plant height, 81.7% of the number of fertile tillers, 82% of the number of spikes per square meter and 69.4% of paddy yields. Also, soil analysis results showed that using 40 t/ha of sheep manure increased the average electrical conductivity by 0.49 dS/ m, nitrogen by 0.14%, and organic carbon by 3%. Applying 20 t/ha of cow manure increased phosphorus and potassium levels, respectively 8.6 ppm and 173.15 ppm compared to zero treatment fertilizer. Considering the results of this study, consumption of 20 t/ha of cow manure is recommended due to maintaining and improving chemical properties of paddy soil, increasing paddy yield of Hashemi and Gilaneh rice varieties by 60.5% and 64.9% compared to zero fertilizer treatment.
Keywords: Rice; Poultry manure; Cow manure; Sheep manure