Title: Comparison of the effect of application of the glycine amino acid chelated Zn and Fe with zinc sulfate on yield, yield components, and grain Zn and Fe of Hashemi rice variety
Author: Shahram MahmoudSoltani
Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) is one of the strategic and staple food of more than 50% of the world population around the world, and especially in the rice-growing area. Also, rice provides 15% of protein and 21% of the energy requirements of the world population. Zinc is the most important micronutrient that its deficiencies due to low plant-available forms adversely affect the rice growth and development, and more broadly the quantity and quality of grain yield. Also, Iron has a vital role in chlorophyll and leghemoglobin synthesis and is a constituent of porphyrin and ferredoxin in the electron transfer of photosynthesis processes. Bio-fortification, adding and/ or enhancing the essential micronutrients (Fe and Zn) in edible parts of crops is also a vital approach of recent agricultural research to cope with growing up malnutrition disorders for human beings. The chelates and salts base of the above-mentioned micronutrients are widely used forms of foliar fertilizer applications; however, they are highly unstable and are easily converted to plant-unavailable forms in paddy field conditions. Aminochelates are new formulations of fertilizers that represent the more natural-oriented and safer forms of chelating agents, with higher use efficiency and without environmental side effects. These fertilizers are produced in a specific procedure using different amino acids as the primary component, and various nutrients, mainly micronutrient metals, as secondary components. Their industrial production is highly dependent on glycine, the most important and smallest amino acid, which can create a real and fully chelated product with metals that is water soluble with high absorption and bioavailability rates. In general, there are two main methods of soil and foliar applications of fertilizer in cropping systems. Amino chelates are very suitable fertilizers for both soil and foliar application. Method of fertilizer application can have a major effect on its efficiency as well as on its environmental pollution. Foliar feeding represents an effective technique toward balanced nutrition and optimum yield and quality production of agricultural crops. The current study was undertaken to compare the effects of two different forms of Zn and Fe (chelates with glycine amino chelates and Sulphate) on the yield and yield components of the most common local rice variety (Hashemi). The three factors experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications at the rice research institute of Iran in 2019-2020. The experimental treatments were: T0(recommended rate of NPK-control 1), T1(1/2 of recommended rate of NPK-control 2), T2(T0+ foliar application of 0.5 kg ha-1 Glycine amino acid Zn ), T3 (T0+ foliar application of 1 kg ha-1 Glycine amino acid Zn), T4 (T0+ T0+ foliar application of 1.5 kg ha-1 Glycine amino acid Zn), T5 (T0+ T0+ foliar application of 0.5 kg ha-1 ZnSO4), T6 (T0+ foliar application of 1 kg ha-1 ZnSO4), T7( T0+ foliar application of 1.5 kg ha-1 ZnSO4), T8 (T0+ foliar application of 0.5 kg ha-1 Glycine amino acid Fe), T9 (T0+ foliar application of 1 kg ha-1 Glycine amino acid Fe), T10 (T0+ foliar application of 1.5 kg ha-1 Glycine amino acid Fe), T11(T1+ foliar application of 1 kg ha-1 Glycine amino acid Zn +foliar application of 1 kg ha-1 Glycine amino acid Fe). All experimental (except T0 and T1) were applied at maximum tillering and one week before flowering stages (1/2 of experimental rates). Also, the collected observation data were: plant height, total tiller number, panicle length, grain and straw yield, N, P, K, Zn, and Fe concentration on grain, straw, and white rice, and protein content of grain and white rice. The results revealed that the highest increase percentage of total tiller number (48.33) was recorded by amino acid chelate of Fe (1.5 kg ha-1) by about 14.17% compared to control (42.33). The maximum panicle weight (69.04 g) was obtained by amino acid chelate of Fe (1.5 kg ha-1) by about 16.45% compared to control (59.29g). The highest increase in the straw yield (5358 kg ha-1) was found by amino acid chelate of Zn by about 10.58% compared to control (4845 kg ha-1). The maximum increase in rice grain yield (4994kgha-1) was recorded by foliar application of ZnSO4 (1 kg ha-1) with no significant difference with foliar application of 0.5 kg ha-1 amino acid chelate of Fe (4384 kg ha-1) compared to control (3430 kg ha-1) by about 46 and 28%, respectively.
Keywords: Rice, paddy fields, Amino acid, chelate, micronutrients